Negative mass   . . . . . by Richard Hammond
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Historical notes:

It is interesting to note both the Army and Air Force supported research in General Relativity during the approximate period 1950 to early 1970s. Sir Hermann Bondi was supported by what was then called the Aeronautical Research Lab which was part of the Air Force (today ARL stands for the Army Research Lab), and the Air Force had a documented interest in ``anti-gravity.''[1] It was during this period Bondi published his famous article concerning negative mass.[2]

NASA had a brief program called The Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project from 1996 through 2002. Grants were given to investigate revolutionary new schemes for the propulsion of spacecrafts.\cite{nasa} One of the research programs involved the study of wormholes, and it is known negative mass can keep a wormhole open.[3]

In his Nobel Lecture, physics/laureates/2011/riess_lecture.pdf Adam Riess says, ``But what I initially measured and wrote in my lab notebook in the fall of 1997 was stunning! The only way to match the change in the expansion rate I was seeing was to allow the universe to have a ``negative'' mass. In other words, up-ending the equation, the Universe wasn't decelerating at all - it was accelerating...!''

  1. 1. J. N. Goldberg in Studies in the History of General Relativity, vol. 3 (Eds. J. Eisenstaedt and A. J. Knox, Burkhauser, Boston, 1988), pages 89-102.
  2. 2.H. Bondi, Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 423 (1957).
  3. 3. URL:
  4. A. G. Riess, physics/laureates/2011/riess_lecture.pdf